Understanding the benefits of bovine colostrum and what it does within the body involves looking at the individual components. Of the more than 280 identified individual components, no isolated component is as effective as the total. Cows are considered universal donors, so every patient can take advantage of colostrum’s healing components.
IgA (serum IgA) – similar to sIgA, but in monomeric form. Responsible for humoral immunity of mucosal surfaces.
sIgA (secretory IgA) – dimer of serum IgA, secretory component protects it from enzymatic degradation, helps molecule pass through intestinal lining, prevents attachment of pathogens (viruses and bacteria) to mucosal surfaces; presence in colostrum is probably to prevent gastrointestinal infections.
IgD – act as antigen receptors on the surfaces of B lymphocytes, highly antiviral.
IgE – bind to receptors on mast cells and basophils, specialized cells that participate in allergic reactions. When an antigen such as pollen reacts with the IgE antibody, the mast cell or basophil releases histamine and other chemicals which produce the allergic reaction. Also attracts IgG, complement and phagocytic cells. Highly antiviral.
IgEbf (IgE binding factor) – acts to suppress action of IgE, may give anti-allergic role to colostrum.
IgG – protect against circulating bacteria and viruses, neutralize bacterial toxins, trigger the complement system and bind to antigens, enhancing the effectiveness of phagocytic cells.
IgM – first antibody produced in response to initial exposure to an antigen, involved in aggregating antigens and reactions involving complement.
Generally speaking, the antibodies in colostrum are immunoglobulins. Antibodies against a wide variety of pathogens, including bacteria, viruses, protozoans and fungi, have been identified in bovine colostrum. Many of these appear in bovine colostrum from pasture fed cows as the pathogens occur naturally in the grasses eaten by the cows. PRP and Lactoferrin in colostrum make up the primary parts of the innate immune system which act against a wide variety of pathogens mainly by modulating the immune system to rally a defense against an infection.
A partial list of such antibodies is given:
Bacteria – antibodies against the following disease-causing bacteria are known to be found in bovine colostrum from pasture-fed cows.
Bacillus cereus – food poisoning
Streptococcus pyogenes – strep throat and other strep diseases, septiciemia
Streptococcus agalactiae – part of normal human flora, can cause septicemia in newborn, meningitis
Streptococcus pneumoniae – pneumonia, ear infections
Streptococcus mutans – tooth decay
Staphylococcus epidermidis - acne vulgaris, biofilms on plastic devices
Staphylococcus aureus – food poisoning, atopic dermatitis
Listeria monocytogenes – causes listerosis (food poisoning)
Yersinia enterocolitica – causes yersinosis (bloody diarrhea and fever in humans)
Eschericia coli – can cause many common bacterial infections, such as cholecystitis, bacteremia, cholangitis, urinary tract infections, traveler’s diarrhea, meningitis and pneumonia
Eschericia coli 0157:H7 – enterohemorrhagic strain of E. coli
Haemophilus influenzae – causes brain and spinal cord meningitis
Campylobacter jejuni – causes food poisoning
Helicobacter pylori – leading cause of peptic ulcers
Salmonella enteritidis – food poisoning
Salmonella typhimurium – salmonellosis, enteric fevers (typhoid and paratyphoid)
Klebsiella pneumoniae – pneumonia, meningitis, liver abscesses, endophthalimitis
Proponiobacterium acnes – acne
Candida albicans – not a bacteria but a fungus, opportunistic oral (thrush) and genital (vaginal) infections
Enterohemmorhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) – the main cause of hemolytic-uremic syndrome, endemic to Argentina.
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli – causes dysentery. Colostrum has antibodies to dangerous forms of E. coli.
Vibrio cholerae – bacteria that causes cholera. Cholera toxin B, which causes the disease, is bound by sialyllactose, which is found in colostrum and milk.
Adenovirus – responsible for 5-10% of upper respiratory infections in children as well as a variety of adult infections. Lactoferrin prevents infection when present prior to viral adsorption stage.
Alphavirus – cause of numerous diseases in humans, including arthritis, encephalitis, rashes and fever. Includes Sindbis virus and Semliki Forest virus. Lactoferrin interferes with the virus-receptor interaction, blocking entrance into cells.
Dengue virus – causes a painful infectious fever in tropical countries. Colostrum has antibodies against Dengue virus.
Echovirus – mainly affecting children, this virus can cause an acute febrile illness and is the most common cause of aseptic meningitis. Lactoferrin blocks viral attachment to cell receptors.
Epstein-Barr and Human Herpes Virus-6 (Chronic Fatigue Syndrome) – PRP given to chronic fatigue patients resulted in improvement in 60% of cases.
Enterovirus 71 – one of major causative agents of hand, foot and mouth disease and serious neurological diseases. Inhibited by lactoferrin.
Hantavirus – causes potentially fatal diseases in humans, including hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and hantavirus pulmonary disease. Lactoferrin inhibits adsorption to target cells.
Hepatitis C virus – Lactoferrin prevents infection by binding to an envelope protein of the virus.
Herpes viruses – PRP has proven very effective in the prevention of herpes virus infections.
HIV-1 – HIV reverse transcriptase, protease and integrase, enzymes crucial to its life cycle, are inhibited by Lactoferrin.
Human Papilloma virus – implicated in cervical and other cancers. Lactoferrin blocks entry into target cells.
Influenza – colostrum proved three times more effective than vaccination in preventing influenza.,
Japanese encephalitis – can cause encephalitis. Colostrum has antibodies against this virus
Measles – 8 of 9 patients suffering respiratory failure from severe measles recovered, and one patient with encephalitis was clear of symptoms within two weeks of the last dose.
Polio virus – cause of poliomyelitis. Immunoglobulins in colostrum show antipoliomyelitic activity. Lactoferrin prevents attachment to gastrointestinal wall.
Respiratory syncytial virus – major cause lower respiratory tract infections during infancy and childhood. Lactoferrin blocks entry into cells.
Rotavirus – a major cause of fatal diarrhea among young children worldwide. Colostrum inhibits rotavirus infection.
St. Louis virus – causes St. Louis encephalitis, which is related to Japanese encephalitis. Colostrum has antibodies against this virus.
West Nile virus – can cause a fever or encephalitis or meningitis. Colostrum has antibodies against this virus.
Yellow fever virus – causes an acute viral hemorrhagic disease that can cause liver damage. Colostrum has antibodies against this virus.
Glycoproteins – proteins with sugars attached, inhibit pathogens by competing for binding sites on the intestinal wall, binding directly to pathogens, and by other means.
Lactoferrin (Lactotransferrin) – an iron-binding protein with many functions: potent non-specific antimicrobial, including bacteria, viruses, fungi and protozoan parasites; essential growth factor for lymphocytes (immune system cells); stimulates activity of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (white blood cells); strongly augments natural killer cell and lymphokine-activated killer cell cytotoxic activity; powerful antioxidant and anti-inflammatory; stimulates production of IL-18; inhibits tryptase, an enzyme secreted by mast cells and possible causative agent of asthma; prevents cancer in animal models.
Transferrin – an iron transporting protein similar in structure to lactoferrin.
Protease inhibitors – help colostrum components survive digestion by inhibiting digestive enzymes; enhance absorption of vital nutrients.
α2-macroglobulin – inhibits thrombin and other proteases, anticoagulant
α2-antiplasmin – thrombin inhibitor, anticoagulant
Antithrombin III – inhibits thrombin, anticoagulant
C1-inhibitor – inhibits C1 protease
Chymotrypsin inhibitor – inhibits chymotrypsin, a type of protease
Elastase inhibitor – inhibits elastase, another protease
Inter-α-trypsin inhibitor – inhibits inter-α-trypsin, another protease
Trypsin inhibitor (α1-antitrypsin) – inhibits trypsin, another protease
κ-caseino glycomacropeptide – a peptide from the casein fraction of milk which interferes with the binding of viruses and bacteria in the intestine, binds cholera and E. coli endotoxins, promotes the growth of helpful bacteria in the gut, helps modulate the immune system and helps prevent the formation of arterial thrombi (clots), a leading cause of heart attack and stroke.
κ-caseinoglycopeptide – a peptide produced by digestion of kappa-casein, found in both bovine and human colostrum and milk, which is absorbed into the blood serum and which has antithrombic properties, preventing platelet aggregation.
Hemopexin – transporter and binder of free heme molecules in body. Has antioxidant function by preventing participation of heme in oxygen radical reactions in tissues. Also plays a key role in the homeostasis of nitric oxide. Known to suppress tumor growth. It may also have an anti-inflammatory effect by suppressing neutrophil accumulation and phagocytosis and by inhibiting the Mg++ dependent adhesion of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.
Haptoglobin – protein binder of free hemoglobin. Binding of haptoglobin to free hemoglobin prevents hemoglobin-induced oxidative tissue damage, so haptoglobin effectively acts as an antioxidant. Increased levels in acute phase inflammation apparently act to selectively antagonize lipopolysaccharide (LPS) inflammatory effects by suppressing monocyte production of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-10 and IL-12 while it does not inhibit anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-8 and IL-1 receptor antagonist.
Thrombospondin – extracellular proteins involved in cell-to-cell and cell-to-matrix communication, including cell adhesion, platelet aggregation, cell proliferation and tissue repair. Potent inhibitor of angiogenesis and tumor growth. Also interact with coagulation and anticoagulant factors in blood.
Milk globule membrane proteins
Mucin (MUC-1) – major mucin glycoprotein expressed on surface of mammary epithelial cells; probably a lactation artifact.
BAMP (Bovine Associated Mucoprotein) – found only in milk and colostrum fat globule membranes, other secretory fluids and fetal serum, but not in adult serum.
Lactadherin – potent phospholipid-blocking anticoagulant, binds to rotavirus to help prevent viral diarrhea.
Adipophilin – necessary for lipid production and secretion into milk during lactation.
Butyrophilin – required for the regulated secretion of milk droplets. Also appears to be anti-inflammatory by suppressing inflammatory cytokines interferon-γ, IL-2, IL-12, GMCSF.
CD36 (fatty acid translocase) – membrane protein expressed by mammary epithelial cells. Fatty acid transporter in milk production.
β2-microglobulin (thymotaxin, lactollin) – light chain of histocompatibility class I antigen. Lactollin is the bovine form of human β2-microglobulin. Has structural homology with sections of both IgG light and heavy chains.
Lipocalins – a family of small, secreted proteins
β-lactoglobulin – milk antigen, one of major causes of cow’s milk allergy, has antimicrobial effects, including antiviral activity.
fatty acid binding protein – binds long chain fatty acids to intestinal epithelial cells (enterocytes), plays a role in the regulation of macrophage inflammatory activity and cholesterol uptake.
Clusterin (Apolipoprotein J) – plays important role in cell-cell and cell-substratum interactions, also acts as an extracellular molecular “chaperone” that “steers” proteins into cells.
casein – principal protein fraction of cow’s milk. Casein has antioxidant properties.
Whole casein can be further separated into:
κ-casein – inhibits attachment of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae in gut.
Orosomucoids (α1-acid glycoprotein) - increased levels and altered forms of orosomucoids are associated with inflammation; anti-inflammatory mediator, particularly in the endothelium of capillaries, where it inhibits the effect of histamine on the capillary.
Folate-binding protein – protein in colostrum and milk that binds folate, allowing for slower absorption into body, which prevents loss of excess folate through urine.
α-lactalbumin – a modifier protein which modifies the action of galactosyl transferase to a lactose synthase. It binds divalent cations (such as Ca++ and Zn++) and may facilitate the absorption of essential minerals. Provides a well-balanced supply of amino acids to the newborn. Most common protein in human milk (20-25% of total protein), but only 2-5% of total protein in bovine milk. Chemically related to lysozyme and has a weak lytic ability.
Multimeric α-lactalbumin (MAL) – a folded variety of α-lactalbumin which has the ability to kill transformed cells (i.e. cancer cells) by apoptosis (programmed cell death) by altering mitochondrial membrane permeability. Also has anti-infective ability.
Lysozyme – a potent antimicrobial which often works in tandem with lactoferrin to kill bacteria and other microorganisms.
Lactoperoxidase - combines with thiocyanate and hydrogen peroxide to form a very potent antimicrobial agent.
Proline-Rich Polypeptide (PRP or colostrinin) – a richly varied immune and inflammatory modulator, induces white blood cell proliferation and the production of a number of cytokines, helps ease symptoms of Alzheimer’s and other cognitive disorders.
Complement (C3) – components of the innate immune system that act to amplify the response and activation of the cell-killing membrane attack complex that attacks pathogens.
Oligosaccharides – provide protection from pathogens by competing for binding sites on intestinal lining. Also support growth of beneficial bacteria.
Apelin – found in bovine colostrum, endogenous ligand of human orphan APJ receptor. Function in colostrum is probably to modulate immune response in neonates.
Angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and competitive substrates:
enkephalins – endorphin-like pentapeptides found throughout body (endorphins are found in the brain only), natural pain killers, antidepressant, immune modulators
bradykinin – vasodilatory peptide activated by ACE.,
substance P – potent vasodilator and secretagogue (an agent which promotes secretion), neurotransmitter belonging to neurokinin family, involved in depression and stress
casokinins (casein-derived ACE inhibitors):
lactokinins (whey-derived ACE inhibitors):,
Bovine serum albumin
albutensin A – ileum contracting and
cathelicidin peptides – part of the innate immune system, found to be highly effective against otherwise resistant bacteria found in cystic fibrosis, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Burkholderia cepacia, Stentrophomonas maltophilia, Achromobacter xylosoxidans.
LL37 (human) CAP18 (rabbit)
mCRAMP (mouse) rCRAMP (rat)
Motilin – peptide gastrointestinal hormone, controls pattern of smooth muscle contraction in upper GI tract, presence in human milk confirmed, but physiological significance unknown.
Cytokines – hormone-like, low molecular weight proteins which regulate the intensity and duration of the immune response and mediate cell-to-cell communication.
Chemokines – small, inducible, secreted, pro-inflammatory cytokines acting primarily as chemoattractants and activators of specific types of leukocytes.
CXCL 1-7 (CXC chemokine ligands)
CXCL 8 (see IL-8)
Eotaxin – chemoattractant for eosinophils
GRO-alpha (growth related protein alpha) – activates neutrophils, chemotactic for neutrophils, promotes angiogenesis and growth of certain tumors
IP-10 (interferon-γ inducible protein) – in human milk, may contribute to the migration and activation of intestinal T lymphocytes to enhance mucosal immunity in neonates
MCP-1 (monocyte chemotactic protein) – also chemotactic for T cells, induces chemotaxis and activation of monocytes
MIG (monokine induced by interferon-γ) – chemotactic for tumor infiltrating lymphocytes.
RANTES (Regulated upon Activation, Normal T cell Expressed and Secreted) (also called SIS-delta) – chemotaxis of T cells, eosinophils and monocytes
IL-1β – enhances proliferation of T helper cells and growth and differentiation of B cells, proinflammatory, fever inducing.
IL-2 – causes proliferation of T lymphocytes, NK cells and activated B lymphocytes.
IL-4 – causes differentiation of B lymphocytes and Th2 cells, increases IgG4 and IgE synthesis, anti-inflammatory.
IL-5 – activates B lymphocytes to produce IgA and causes eosinophils to differentiate.
IL-6 – activates T cells, increases synthesis and secretion of immunoglobulins by B lymphocytes.
IL-8 – in human milk, resistant to digestion, IL-8 receptors (CXCR1, CXCR2) are extensively expressed in fetal intestine, increases migration, proliferation and differentiation of both fetal and adult intestinal cells, promotes angiogenesis, protects cells from chemical injury, neutrophil chemoattractant.
IL-10 – inhibits interferon-gamma and IL-2 secretion by T lymphocytes, increases B cell and mast cell proliferation, anti-inflammatory.
IL-12 – induces interferon-gamma and IL-2 synthesis in T lymphocytes and natural killer (NK) cells, proinflammatory.
IL-13 – anti-inflammatory, growth factor for B cells, modulates B lymphocyte responses, increases IgM, IgE and IgG4 production.
IL-16 – chemotactant for CD4+T cells.
IL-18 – induces interferon-gamma production by T and NK cells.
Interferon-γ – highly immunoregulatory and proinflammatory, antiviral.
Tumor necrosis factor-α family
TNF- α – cytotoxic for many tumor cell types, increases fever and septic shock, main proinflammatory regulator.
TNF-α receptors – proteins which bind to TNF-α, inactivating it.
Osteopontin (bone sialoprotein, Eta-1 (early T-lymphocyte activation 1)) – secreted by epithelial cells, associated with bone mineralization.
Osteoprotegerin – inhibits osteoclast (“bone-eating”) differentiation, preventing bone destruction.
Growth Factors – growth factors play an important role in maintaining the body, including repair of leaky gut epithelia, bone remodeling and maintenance, fracture repair, wound healing, stimulating cellular migration and proliferation, increase in collagen production, growth of blood vessels into damaged areas, and many others
Colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) – stimulate the production of mature blood cells and macrophages from stem cells.
Epithelial/Epidermal growth factor (EGF) – helps to promote wound healing by stimulating cell proliferation in wound.
Betacellulin – originally found in pancreas and thought to have a physiological role in the development of pancreatic islet cells (which produce insulin). Its function in the body and the reason for its presence in colostrum and milk is still unclear.
Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) – helps to promote wound healing by stimulating cell proliferation in the wound, helps maintain normal bone and repair fractures.
Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) – increases growth, differentiation and activation of granulocytes (eosinophils, basophils, neutrophils). As it is not absorbed, it appears to act locally in the gut. Part of CSF family of growth factors.
Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) – helps to promote wound healing by stimulating cell proliferation in the wound. Enhances bone healing in the elderly. Decreases in amounts in the body with age.
Insulin-like growth factor-2 (IGF-2) - promotes growth during gestation.
IGFBP-3 (Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3) – the major IGFBP in cows, binds both IGF and lactoferrin. With lactoferrin, can enter nucleus of cells and affects apoptotic (programmed cell death) signaling.
Macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) – increases growth, differentiation and activation of macrophages (phagocytic scavenger cells of blood and connective tissues). Part of CSF family of growth factors.
Transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-a) - induces epithelial development, stimulates neural cell proliferation in adult injured brain.,
Transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1) – increases IgA production and activation of naïve T cells, decreases activation of monocytes and memory T cells, promotes fibroblast growth and wound healing. Vital factor in skeletal growth, bone mass maintenance and fracture healing.
Transforming growth factor-beta2 (TGF-β2) - another isoform of TGF-βwith similar activity.
Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) – plays a role in bone metabolism as a mitogen (cell division stimulant) for osteoblasts (bone forming cells). It also stimulates fibroblasts to divide.
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) – plays a role in healing of injuries, such as tendon and ligament injuries, by providing blood supply to damaged areas.
Carbonic anhydrase – involved in the breakdown of sugars and fat for energy.
Fructose-bisphosphate aldolase A
Glycosyl transferases – involved in the glycosylation of (adding sugar to) proteins in the milk fat globule membrane.
Matrix metalloproteinases – family of zinc-containing endopeptidases that play a key role in both physiological and pathological tissue remodeling.
Telomerase – enzyme that adds DNA sequence repeats to the end of DNA strands in chromosomes to prevent loss of important DNA sequences during replication. Length of telomere determines the number of times a cell can divide.
UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine: Polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase – a glycosyltransferase.,
Xanthine Oxidase – important enzyme involved in the catabolism of purines in humans and other animals.
Glutathione and precursors
Epo (erythropoietin) – stimulates red blood cell production.
Leptin – secreted by fat tissue, acts to curb appetite and increase energy expenditure as body fat stores increase.
Procalcitonin/Calcitonin – produced by parathyroid, thyroid and thymus glands, increases deposition of calcium and phosphate in bone and lowers levels in blood.
Relaxin – peptide hormone which aids delivery, probably involved in nipple development in mother rather than having any function in newborn.
Prolactin – pituitary hormone which stimulates production of milk in mother, artifact from maternal blood serum
Insulin – from islets of Langerhans in pancreas, promotes glucose utilization, protein synthesis, fat storage.
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) (gonadoliberin) – hypothalamic hormone which stimulates the release of gonadotropin (hormone promoting gonadal growth and development), artifact from maternal blood serum.
Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) (luliberin) – hypothalamic hormone which stimulates the release of luteinizing hormone (lutropin), artifact from maternal serum.
Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) (thyroliberin)–hypothalamic hormone which stimulates the release of thyrotropin, a hormone which stimulates the growth and development of the thyroid.
Growth hormone (somatotropin) – pituitary hormone which promotes body growth, fat mobilization and inhibition of glucose utilization.
Somatostatin (somatotropin-release inhibiting factor) – inhibits the release of somatotropin and the release of insulin and gastrin.
Progesterone – so-called pregnancy hormone which prepares the corpus luteum and placenta for pregnancy, artifact from maternal blood serum.
Melatonin – produced by pineal gland, involved in circadian rhythms.
Nucleosides – act as regulators in the body. Contribute to iron absorption in the gut and influence saturation and elongation rates in fatty acid synthesis.
Nucleotides – important in intestinal integrity and immune function in infancy.
cytidine monophosphate (CMP)
uridine monophosphate (UMP)
adenosine monophosphate (AMP)
guanosine monophosphate (GMP)
Polyamines – involved in cell growth and differentiation, important in intestinal maturation of the newborn.
Carotenoids – antioxidant pigments. People consuming diets rich in carotenoids from fruit and vegetables are healthier and have lower mortality than those who do not.
alpha-carotene – Vitamin A activity (can be converted to Vitamin A)
beta-carotene – Vitamin A activity
beta-cryptoxanthin – Vitamin A activity
Vitamin B1 (thiamin) Vitamin B2 Vitamin B6 Vitamin B12 Vitamin EVitamin A
Vitamin C Vitamin D3 Folic Acid Pantothenic Acid Beta-carotene Glycoconjugates Glycogen Retinoic Acid Orotic Acid
Lactobacillus acidophilus Lactobacillus bifidus
Minerals – tend to have highest levels in early colostrum and taper off after that.
Calcium Chromium Iron
Magnesium Phosphorus Potassium
Selenium Sodium Sulfur
Amino Acids – the building blocks of proteins. Colostrum contains nine essential amino acids (i.e. amino acids that the body does not produce) and nine non-essential amino acids. While amino acid supplementation is popular, especially among athletes, most claims, such as muscle building, are unsubstantiated. In fact, excess amino acids can interfere with the action of prescription drugs or hormones (arginine, for example, can inhibit the action of pain killers and antibiotics) or worsen preexisting diseases (tyrosine, for example, can aggravate the symptoms of schizophrenia). Amino acid supplementation can be of benefit, however, in cases of deficiencies, such as due to weight loss diets, or unhealthy environmental or lifestyle conditions.
Essential Amino Acids:
Isoleucine – branched chain amino acid used in body building. Hemodialysis patients often have low plasma levels of isoleucine and require supplementation.
Leucine – reduces protein breakdown and increases skeletal muscle protein synthesis. Required for healthy immune system. Used to treat hepatic encephalopathy.
Histidine – causes secretion and elimination of zinc to increase, suppresses food intake and fat accumulation in rats, essential to normal sexual functioning, may relieve symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis, used to make histamine. Controls diarrhea, increases calcium and zinc absorption. Scavenges reactive oxygen species and inhibits lipid peroxidation. Deficiencies in childhood can result in growth and mental retardation and impaired speech.
Methionine – can help in some cases of schizophrenia by lowering blood level of histamine. Deficiency can result in edema and susceptibility to infection, as well as cholesterol deposits, atherosclerosis and hair loss.
Lysine – required for growth, tissue repair and the production of antibodies, hormones and enzymes. Promotes concentration and proper use of fatty acids for energy.
Threonine – excessive threonine can cause formation of too much urea and consequent ammonia toxicity. Requires Vitamin B6, magnesium and niacin to be used properly in body. Both serine and glycine may be synthesized from it.
Phenylalanine – functions as a neurotransmitter
Valine – another branched chain amino acid. Promotes mental vigor, muscle coordination and emotional calm. Helps prevent nervous and digestive disorders. Taken with leucine, decreases risk of side effects for muscle building.
Tryptophan – used by brain along with Vitamin B6, niacin and magnesium to produce serotonin, a neurotransmitter. Acts as an antidepressant reducing anxiety and tension.
Non-essential Amino Acids:
Arginine – precursor of nitric oxide, reduces healing time of injuries (particularly bone), helps decrease blood pressure. Required for normal functioning of pituitary gland.
Cystine – readily converted to cysteine. When metabolized, yields sulfuric acid which is used to detox
Glutamic Acid – primarily used in brain. Converts ammonia in brain to glutamine.
Alanine – synthesized in muscle from branched chain amino acids. Helps regulate sugar levels in blood. Used by liver for gluconeogenesis. Deficiency may lead to muscle loss and poor glucose tolerance.
Tyrosine – neurotransmitter, stimulates and modifies brain activity. Supplementation can help control medication-resistant depression and anxiety.
Glycine – used in treatment of lower pituitary gland function and progressive muscular dystrophy. Also used to treat hypoglycemia. Stimulates release of glucagon, which mobilizes glycogen, which is then released into blood as glucose.
Proline – used for skin problems such as acne or ulcers, one of main components of collagen. Important for proper functioning of joints and tendons. Helps maintain cardiac muscle and helps with tissue repair and wound healing. May be useful in helping prevent atherosclerosis and other heart problems.
Aspartic Acid – helps get rid of harmful ammonia in body, which helps protect nervous system.
Serine – necessary for metabolism of fats. Precursor of tryptophan and serotonin. Plays major role in many biosynthetic pathways, including serine proteases such as trypsin and chymotrypsin, digestive enzymes. Patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome often have low serine levels.
Saposins A, B, C, D
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